Panama - Doctrine
The country has no military forces. Following the 1989 US invasion, the Panamanian military was abolished. As a result of the North American Invasion through Operation Just Cause, on December 20, 1989, the Defense Forces were dissolved and thus the disappearance of the Panamanian Air Force and the Navy Force National. Through Cabinet Decree No. 38 of February 10, 1990, the Public Force is organized, being conformed by the National Air Service, National Maritime Service, and the National Police with separate command and ladder under the authority and dependence of the Organ Through the Ministry of Government and Justice.
In 1968 Brigadier General Omar Torrijos Herrera, Commander-in-Chief of the National Guard, organized a coastguard service with the name of Marine Operations as a Department of the National Guard. Later on January 17, 1969, he created the Panamanian Air Force, located in the old terminal of the International Airport of Tocumen, under the command of Captain Alberto Purcell. Through Law 20 of September 29, 1983, which created the Defense Forces of the Republic of Panama, Article 1 integrates the Panamanian Air Force and the National Navy Force, both as units of the Defense Forces Under one command.
Before conversion of the National Guard into the Panama Defense Forces (Fuerzas de Defensa de Panama—FDP), the Panamanian military did not have separate service branches. Even in 1987, the six groups into which the FDP was divided (Ground Forces, Panamanian Air Force, National Navy, Police Forces, National Guard, and Military Zones) were referred to as "entities" (entidades) rather than service branches. Prior to 1983, the air force and navy were under the direct jurisdiction of the G-3 (Operations). Although not granted autonomy from the General Staff by the 1983 law, they seemed to have assumed more of a separate identity in the late 1980s.
Ex vice-president Ricardo Arias Calderon wrote "When from December 4 to 5, 1990, there was an attempt to revolt against the democratic government, the last blow of the monster, to stop the demilitarization and to remain in a kind of militarized National Guard, with power parallel to that of the civil authorities of the country, Several of these men with great courage. Ramon Lima went into the mouth of the wolf to try to convince the leaders of the barbarity they committed and was kidnapped; Ebrahim Asvat, a gun was placed on a belt, along with Humberto Macea, at the Ramon Lima went into the mouth of the wolf to try to convince the leaders of the barbarity they committed and was kidnapped; Ebrahim Asvat, a gun was placed on a belt, along with Humberto Macea, at the Ramon Lima went into the mouth of the wolf to try to convince the leaders of the barbarity they committed and was kidnapped; Ebrahim Asvat, a gun was placed on a belt, along with Humberto Macea, at theentryOf the new central police station, ready to prevent from firing the rebels to the Assembly or the Presidency; Milton Castillo kept the units of Chiriquí faithful to the democratic government.
"I must recognize the indispensable role in the demilitarization of ex-Presidents Endara and Perez Balladares. They realized that a policy that at first was the object of extremist criticism of one side, because it did not dismiss all the former members of the army, and the nostalgic ones of the other, because the army was eliminated, had been appropriate and began to be object Consensus. And they had the political courage to promote their constitutional formalization."
In 1994, the Legislative Assembly passed a constitutional amendment that prohibited the creation of a standing military but created provisions for the temporary creation of special police units to tackle “external aggression.” The constitutional reform of demilitarization in 1994 was followed by the approval of Law 18 of June 3, 1997, ie the Organic Law of the National Police, and the approval of the Fundamentals of Panamanian Security Policy in 2000.
By 2001 various acts were awaiting approval, including the organic laws of the National Air Service and the National Marine Service and the Law of the Public Security and National Defense Council, which must include the legal regulations regarding the State intelligence service. Panama’s security institutions have undergone significant reforms starting in 2008, including the merging of the coast guard and police air wing and the development of the border defence force. The National Aeronaval Service arose from the merger between two states security, the National Air Service and the National Maritime Service. Arising in this way, Decree Law 07 of August 20, 2008, and attached to the Ministry of Government and Justice.
Law 15 of April 14, 2010 created the Ministry of Public Security, with the mission of determining the security policies of the country and to plan, coordinate, monitor and support the efforts of the security and intelligence sectors that made up this Ministry . Being part of the Operational Level the National Naval Service. By means of Law 93 of November 7, 2013, the National Aeronaval Service is reorganized, with the intention of meeting the current needs of this security establishment, in order to contemplate the doctrinal framework in matters of public security, establishing the legal platform for The exercise of the functions inherent to the forces of the Public Force.
The Public Security Forces of Panama (Fuerza Pública de Panama), includes the National Police (Policia Nacional) National Air-Naval Service (Servicio Nacional Aeronaval-ENAN), and the National Border Service (Servicio Nacional de Fronteras-SENAFRONT). The three bodies fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Public Security (Ministerio de Seguridad Pública)which was created in 2010.
The Panamanian National Police (PNP) is principally responsible for internal law enforcement and public order. Civilian authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of the Presidency maintained effective control over all police, investigative, border, air, maritime, and migration services in the country. The government has mechanisms to investigate and punish abuse and corruption, but information on the process and results of investigations were rarely made public. Due to the lack of prison guards, the PNP was increasingly responsible for security both outside and inside of the prisons. Its leadership expressed concern over insufficient training and equipment.
As of July 2010, the Panamanian Security Forces consisted of the Panamanian National Police (PNP), the National Frontier Service (Servicio Nacional de Fronteras or SENAFRONT), the National Aero-Naval Service (Servicio Nacional Aero-Naval or SENAN), and the Institutional Protection Service (SPI--a secret service equivalent). The lead criminal investigative entity is the Judicial Investigative Directorate (DIJ). Previously under the nominal direction of the autonomous Attorney General and known as the Technical Judicial Police (PTJ), the DIJ is now part of the PNP though it maintains investigative links with the Attorney General's office.
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