Tula Tokarev (TT-33)
Pistol arr. 1933 ( TT , Tulsky, Tokareva , Index GRAU - 56-A-132 ) was the first army self-loading pistol of the USSR, developed in 1930 by Soviet designer Fedor Vasilyevich Tokarev. The TT pistol was developed for the 1929 competition for a new army pistol, announced to replace the Nagant revolver and several foreign-made revolvers and pistols that were in service with the Red Army by the mid-1920s. The German cartridge 7.63 × 25 mm Mauser was adopted as a regular cartridge, which was purchased in significant quantities for the Mauser C96 pistols in service.
At the end of the 1920s, the personal weapons of soldiers and officers of the Red Army were revolvers of the Nagant system, which by that time were structurally outdated and did not meet modern requirements at that time. This prompted the command to announce a competition among domestic designers to create a new pistol, in which Tokarev also took part. The Nagant revolver did not have the necessary rate of fire, firepower and firing efficiency. It was necessary to create personal weapons with higher combat and service-operational qualities.
The then widespread Browning and Mauser 7.65 mm pocket pistols were not suitable for use in the army due to the small stopping effect of the bullet, the Belgian Browning 1903 caliber 9 mm did not have an external trigger and was designed for a rather low-power cartridge. The American M1911A1 was too large and heavy, rather difficult to manufacture weapons, although very effective in shooting, beloved by many Red Army commanders and revolutionaries, the Mauser C-96 was hopelessly outdated, and the German Parabellum P.08, which had excellent combat and operational qualities, was too expensive and labor-intensive to manufacture.
In general, the reason for the rejection of foreign systems was the need to re-equip the arms industry with new production equipment and the introduction of new standards, which required gigantic expenses that were not acceptable at that time for Soviet Russia. The new weapon for arming the command staff of the Red Army was to have a large range of actual fire, small dimensions, low weight, an open trigger and the simplest possible fuse, as well as a beautiful appearance, but most importantly, be simple in design and adapted to cheap mass production on an outdated and primitive equipment.
The competition commission, headed by M. F. Grushetsky, considered the pistol designed by F. V. Tokarev to be the most suitable for adoption, provided that the identified shortcomings were eliminated. The commission's requirements included improved shooting accuracy, easier trigger pulls, and safer handling. Within a few months of work, the shortcomings were eliminated. On December 23, 1930, a decision was made on additional tests.
According to the test results, the TT pistol, created by a design team led by F.V. Tokarev in the design bureau of the Tula Arms Plant, won the competition. According to the test results, the pistol presented by him showed a constructive and technological superiority over other samples. The weapon turned out to be quite simple to manufacture, easy to handle and operate. During tests, when other samples failed, the components and assemblies of the Tokarev pistol continued to work.
On February 12, 1931, the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR ordered the first batch of 1000 pistols for comprehensive military tests. In the same year, the Tokarev pistol was put into service under the official designation "7.62-mm self-loading pistol mod. 1930" together with cartridge 7.62?25. The pistol, called TT (Tula Tokarev), was simple and technologically advanced in production and operation.
At the same time, the USSR bought a license for the production of a cartridge from the German company Mauser and began production under the designation "7.62-mm pistol cartridge" P "mod. 1930".
Several thousand copies were produced in 1930-1932. In order to improve the manufacturability of production in 1932-1933. the weapon has undergone modernization: the lugs of the barrel were not milled, but performed by turning; the frame was made in one piece, without a removable handle cover; the uncoupler and trigger pull were modified. At the beginning of 1934, the new pistol was put into service under the name "7.62-mm self-loading pistol mod. 1933".
In 1939, a group of designers led by Tokarev created a version of the pistol with a more massive handle and a 12-round magazine. The magazine latch was moved, which significantly reduced the chance of a spontaneous shot. The Great Patriotic War prevented further refinement of the pistol.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War and the evacuation of many weapons factories to the east of the country, the production of TT, despite all the difficulties, did not stop. In November-December 1941, equipment for the manufacture of TT was transferred to Izhevsk. In 1942, the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant No. 74 managed to produce 161,485 Tokarev pistols. Also in 1942, Izhevsk Plant No. 74 produced a small batch of a Tokarev pistol with a double-row magazine for 14 rounds. The thickness of the handle was 42 mm (against 30.5 mm for the standard TT). The magazine latch has been moved to the base of the handle.
In 1947, the TT was again modified in order to reduce its cost: large vertical grooves, alternating with small grooves on the shutter housing for easy retraction of the shutter, were replaced with small grooves (grooving).
After the war, the Tokarev pistol was popular in criminal circles, primarily due to the fact that many units of this weapon were not included in the bullet casing. In 1952, after the adoption of the new PM pistol by designer Nikolai Makarov, the production of the TT was discontinued. But despite this, Tokarev pistols were used in the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs as service weapons until the mid-1970s. In the 1990s, handicraft silencers were produced for pistols. Also, for many decades, licensed copies of the pistol were used in many foreign countries, in some of them, to this day, TTs continue to be in service with army units and law enforcement agencies.
In the USSR, in the period from 1930 to 1952, over one and a half million TT pistols were manufactured.
The TT pistol combines the design features of various systems: the J. M. Browning bore locking scheme used in the famous Colt M1911, the Browning M1903 design and the cartridge originally developed for the Mauser C96 pistol. According to some experts, when developing the design of the pistol, it was originally supposed to completely copy the design of the modified Browning pistol with a removable trigger trigger mechanism. However, in the course of work, the designers refused to completely copy due to the lack of a technological base for the production of a complete copy of the original. It was necessary to reduce production costs by simplifying the design. At the same time, the pistol has original design solutions aimed at ease of handling weapons: the combination of the firing mechanism in a separate single block-block, which, when the weapon is disassembled, is freely separated from the frame for cleaning and lubrication ; placement of the mainspring in the trigger, which reduced the longitudinal width of the handle.
The Browning scheme of locking the barrel with a short stroke and a swinging earring, the automation system, as well as the trigger, borrowed from the Colt M1911 pistol, were modified to simplify production. USM single action. The impact mechanism is made in a single block, which simplified the factory assembly. (A few years later, the Swiss gunsmith Charles Petter used the same layout in the French Model 1935 pistol).
The pistol does not have a safety catch as a separate part, its functions are performed by a safety cocking of the trigger. To remove the trigger from the safety platoon, you need to cock the trigger. To put the cocked hammer on the safety platoon, it must first be released by holding it and pressing the trigger. To set the lowered trigger on the safety platoon, you need to slightly pull the trigger back. After that, the trigger and bolt will be blocked, and the trigger will not touch the firing pin. This eliminates the possibility of a shot if the pistol falls or accidentally strikes the head of the trigger.
Carrying a pistol with a cartridge in the chamber with the trigger released is not recommended and does not make sense, since for a shot users need to cock the trigger in the same way as the trigger set to the safety cock.
On the left side of the frame is the shutter release lever. When the magazine is used up, the shutter gets delayed in the rear position. To release the shutter from the delay, you need to lower the shutter delay lever. The magazine holds 8 rounds. The magazine release button is located on the left side of the grip, at the base of the trigger guard, similar to the Colt M1911. Hits when firing at 50 m in each of 10 series of 10 shots fit into a circle with a radius of 150 mm. Sights consist of a front sight made integral with the bolt and a rear sight pressed into a dovetail groove at the rear of the bolt. The cheeks of the handle were made of Bakelite or (during the war years) of wood (walnut).
The Tokarev pistol and its modifications after the Second World War became widespread throughout the world. Their production was established in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, China, North Korea, Vietnam and Iraq. Pistols designed by Tokarev were in service with more than 35 countries around the world. These weapons have participated in every major and minor armed conflict throughout the 20th century and continue to be used in modern warfare areas. The wide popularity of the TT is a result of a combination of its low cost, high combat qualities, as well as ease of handling and maintenance.
The opinion of an employee of a special unit of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation with extensive combat experience about the TT: “A lot has been said about him, quite a bit can be added. More suitable for military use when it is on alert. For their own relatively small size, one of the most powerful pistols in the world. And it is much more pleasant to the touch, for example, PYa and all sorts of Glocks. Completely unsuitable for urban shooting and self-defense. The large penetrating power of the bullet and the lack of self-cocking can lead to prison (right through and into a random passerby) or to the cemetery (you need to have time to cock the trigger).”
Tula Tokarev is a 2010 Russian crime drama television series based on the novel of the same name by Andrei Konstantinov , co-authored with Evgeny Vyshenkov. The film is set in the late 1970s and late 1980s, in Leningrad on Vasilyevsky Island . The heroes of the film are investigating a series of murders committed by a mysterious maniac nicknamed "Chess Player". In 2011, the series was nominated for the Golden Rhino Award in the category "Television Series (up to 12 episodes)" in three categories: "Best Television Series", "Best Screenplay", "Best Director's Work", and also received an award in the category "Awards for television films out of categories" in the nomination "Best Editing".
|Constructor||Tokarev, Fedor Vasilievich|
|Manufacturer||Tula arms factory|
|Total Issued||1,740,000 (production in the USSR from 1930 to 1953)|
|Copy cost||About 20000 rubles|
|Weight, kg||0.854 (unloaded) / 0.94 (loaded)|
|Barrel length , mm||116|
|Cartridge||7.62×25 mm TT|
|Caliber , mm||7.62|
|Work principles||recoil with a short stroke of the barrel , misalignment of the barrel|
|Muzzle velocity , m/s||420|
|Sighting range , m||50|
|Maximum range, m||2290 (bullet flight)|
|Type of ammunition||magazine for 8 rounds|
Fedor Vasilievich Tokarev
The famous designer of small arms Fedor Vasilievich Tokarev was born on June 2 (14), 1871 in the village of the Yegorlyk region of the Don Cossacks (now the Rostov region) into a Cossack family. Fedor Tokarev was born and grew up in a Cossack family, where weapons played an important role. Fedor saw weapons from his father and other Cossacks from his childhood, heard talk about him and, like any boy, showed the most keen interest in him. And since Fyodor also had an inclination towards craftsmanship, then, naturally, these two interests had to unite in him sooner or later and turn into one great attraction to weapons business.
Once, when asked about how he became a designer, Tokarev replied: "In my opinion, it happened by accident. As a child, I ran into a gunsmith and became very interested in his work. I think that's where it started". Numerous biographical materials indicate that Tokarev became a gunsmith not by chance, but for other, more significant reasons. It is known for certain that the grandfather of Fyodor Vasilyevich, Stepan Tokarev, was a Don Cossack of the village of Yegorlykskaya and died more than a hundred years ago in the Caucasus. It is not known who the great-grandfather was, but, as Fyodor Vasilyevich himself recalls, in childhood his father told him that one of their distant ancestors was a artisan, a turner. It is likely that this turner came to the Don from the central provinces, where they were engaged in crafts, possibly from Tula itself. The Tokarev family descended from him and such a rare surname in the Don began to spread.
At that time, young Cossacks began military service at the age of 17-18. For the first four years they were in the preparatory category and lived at home, coming to class only on certain days - three times a week. For the next four years they served in the field Cossack regiment, and then transferred to the second line (to the reserve) for four years. Finally, for the last four years they were enrolled in the third line, that is, they lived in their own village and could only be called upon mobilization.
In total, the Cossacks were in the service for 16 years, but actually served eight, given the four years of training. The rest of the time they stayed at home, plowing. However, each of them was obliged to keep ready all his equipment, his horse and go to the inspections and verifications held by the ataman from time to time.
When Fedya was seven years old, he independently made a small plow out of wood and tin, very similar to a real one. His product visited the neighboring yards and received the approval of not only kids, but even adults. Praise gave Fedya confidence, and he took on a new job. Having found a heavy red brick in the yard, he began to grind, carve and saw out some intricate toy from it. The brick turned out to be hard and unyielding, but Fedya continued to work with amazing perseverance, spending almost whole days behind it.
Although his father once served in the artillery, that is, in the most "learned" units, and still wore an artillery cap, he unshakably believed that one winter of study was more than enough for a Cossack. Fedya was forced to leave school. Fedor, deprived of school, with ever-increasing interest, was drawn to the craft. Next to their outbuilding was a forge, where two former soldiers, Peter and Semyon, worked. Fedor began to look at them.
He studied in the city of Novocherkassk at the military trade school. The Military Craft School organized in Novocherkassk was planned to create four departments: weapons and plumbing, blacksmithing, saddlery and saddlery. Education and meals for students were supposed to be free. Those who completed the course were to be graduated as masters and promoted to non-combatants of the senior rank, that is, to receive the first Cossack ranks from a constable to a senior constable and be sent to the positions of weapons, saddle and other masters in Cossack military units. To study for free and then become a foreman in a regiment, and even in the rank of officer, what could be more tempting for the son of a poor Cossack?
Once a teacher of the weapons department came to the forge, a well-known weapons designer on the Don, Alexander Evstafievich Chernolikhov. Knowing about the ardent desire of the young man to become a gunsmith, he promised to work on transferring him to his place. From that day on, Fedor's fate was finally decided. With the transition to the weapons department, Tokarev immediately began to make great strides. Neither games, nor wrestling, nor other entertainments interested him. Fedor Tokarev graduated from the Military Craft School in 1891.
Tokarev was appointed as a gunsmith in the 12th Don Cossack Regiment, which was stationed in Novocherkassk.Tokarev began to carry out small private orders in the regimental workshop and earn some money. He served as a weapons master of the 12th Don Cossack Regiment, and after receiving the officer's rank - the head of weapons of the specified regiment. Now all weapons passed through his hands. He was supposed to monitor its serviceability, make inspections and repairs.
In 1907, he took courses at the Officers' Rifle School in Oranienbaum, after which he turned to the independent design of automatic weapons. He worked at the Sestroretsk and Izhevsk plants. A year and a half he was in the army during the First World War. In 1908-1914 he worked at the Sestroretsk Arms Plant, where he continued to improve this rifle model, working, in addition, on new samples of an automatic rifle of his own design. The Tokarev automatic rifle, along with other designers, was recognized and passed "commission" and field tests. But in 1912, he presented a completely new type of rifle, significantly improved, on which he worked until 1914, when he was mobilized into the army. Tokarev was in the army for about a year and a half, commanded a hundred in the 29th Don Cossack regiment and received 5 military awards for distinction in cases against the enemy. In 1915, Tokarev was again enrolled in the staff of the Sestroretsk plant, as "an excellent technician and designer of weapons."
In 1921-1941, for 20 years F.V. Tokarev lived in Tula and worked at the Tula arms factory. It was here that he created his best examples of small arms, including those that were adopted by the Red Army: the MT (Maxima - Tokarev) light machine gun of the 1925 model, converted by Tokarev from the Maxim easel machine gun; pistol TT (Tula Tokarev) model 1930. Tokarev's talent blossomed in the early 1920s. Since 1921, he linked his fate with the Tula Arms Plant. In 1924, the Maxim light machine gun, modernized according to the Tokarev system (MT - Maxim - Tokarev), was adopted by the Red Army. In 1926, Tokarev developed a new version of the Maxim machine gun for use in aviation, replacing the Vickers machine gun. In 1927, he developed the first domestic submachine gun chambered for a revolving cartridge (Tokarev submachine gun, model 1927).
Fedor Vasilievich Tokarev often won open competitions for the best weapons. So, at the end of the 20s, a number of small arms designers (S. A. Korovin, S. A. Prilutsky and others) worked on pistols. Participated in this work and Tokarev. From June 25 to July 13, 1930, a commission chaired by V. F. Grushetsky carried out field tests 7.62-mm pistols of Korovin, Prilutsky and Tokarev in parallel with the testing of the best foreign samples of the Walter, Parabellum, Browning systems. Tests revealed the superiority of the Tokarev pistol over all others in terms of weight, dimensions and reliability in any operating conditions.
The self-loading rifle Tokarev model 1938 (SVT-38), which was modernized in 1940, taking into account the experience of its combat use in the Soviet-Finnish war (SVT-40). In the harsh winter conditions, the SVTs he created functioned properly and were a formidable weapon for Soviet infantrymen. Soon self-loading Tokarev rifles with a telescopic sight appeared at the front, unanimously nicknamed 'sniper rifles' by the troops. Courageous Soviet snipers, armed with 'SVT', hid in the forest thickets or in snowdrifts, accurately hit the enemy.
By decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of October 28, 1940, for outstanding achievements in the field of creating new types of weapons that raised the defense power of the Soviet Union, Fedor Vasilyevich Tokarev was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor with the Order of Lenin and the Hammer and Sickle gold medal.
Tokarev was informed of another good news: on November 10, 1940, the Higher Attestation Commission of the All-Union Committee for Higher Education under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR awarded him the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences without defending a dissertation. The news that he was awarded a degree was especially dear to Tokarev, since this decision recognized the scientific value of his design work. Until now, only one Degtyarev has been awarded this high academic title among weapons designers.
In June 1941, Fyodor Vasilyevich Tokarev turned seventy years old. From the front-line soldiers, Tokarev learned a lot of valuable things for himself. The fighters said that his rifle generally works well, but its mechanism is very sensitive to clogging. And all the way Tokarev thought about how to eliminate this shortcoming, how to make the rifle trouble-free in operation in the most difficult front-line conditions.
Weapons created by F.V. Tokarev, were widely used by Soviet soldiers in battles with the Nazi invaders during the Great Patriotic War. Soldiers armed with a Tokarev rifle fought not only near Leningrad, but also in all sectors of the vast front. Many partisans operating behind enemy lines were also armed with it. In one of the museums in Moscow, a Tokarev rifle is kept, which belonged to the Kalinin partisan A. Vasiliev. The participants in the heroic epic near Brest - the defenders of the Brest fortress - also had Tokarev automatic rifles in their arsenal. The museum of the Soviet Army exhibits the charred skeletons of Mosin and Tokarev rifles and Degtyarev assault rifles, recovered from the ruins of the Brest fortress by the Soviet soldiers who liberated it.
For services to the Motherland in 1940 F.V. Tokarev was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, awarded the State Prize of the USSR, he was approved for the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences. In February 1946, the illustrious designer was again elected a deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In June 1946, Tokarev turned 75 years old. The public of our country widely celebrated the anniversary of the famous inventor. Fedor Vasilyevich received hundreds of letters, addresses, greeting telegrams from all over the vast country. He was written by former front-line soldiers - soldiers, officers and generals, he was congratulated by gunsmiths, he was greeted by inventors, scientists, workers of art and literature, students and schoolchildren. His name enjoyed not only wide popularity, but also great love among the people. On this day, Tokarev's chest was decorated with the third Order of Lenin.
Tulyaks twice elected him as their deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. He was awarded the title of Honorary Citizen of Tula. Tokarev was awarded 4 orders of Lenin, five other orders, as well as medals of the USSR. The last period of his life F.V. Tokarev lived in Moscow, where he died on June 7, 1968. However, according to his will, he was buried in Tula at the All Saints Cemetery . In Tula at house number 67 on Lenin Avenue, where he lived and worked from 1939 to 1941. F.V. Tokarev, a memorial plaque was erected in memory of the outstanding weapons designer.
|Constructor||Emile Nagant, Leon Nagant|
|Years of production||1895-1945:
|Weight, kg||0.795 (unloaded) 0.880 (loaded)|
|Barrel length , mm||114 (number of grooves - 4)|
|Cartridge||7.62×38 mm Nagant|
|Caliber , mm||7.62|
|Work principles||double action trigger|
|Rate of fire , shots / min||7 shots in 15-20 seconds|
|Muzzle velocity , m/s||272|
|Sighting range , m||50|
|Maximum range, m||100-150 m|
|Type of ammunition||drum for 7 rounds|
|Aim||rear sight with an aiming slot on the top of the frame, front sight on the front of the barrel|
38R Nagant Revolver
The Nagant revolver became one of the symbols of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent civil war, and later the word "nagant" became a household word - in colloquial speech, any revolver, and sometimes a self-loading pistol, was often called "nagant". In the shadow of the revolver itself, a cartridge remained, no less interesting than the legendary revolver itself. The most remarkable feature of the Nagant revolver, locking gases when fired, preventing them from breaking through into the gap between the drum and the barrel. When fired, the drum was pressed tightly against the barrel, and the ejected bullet "unfolded" the upper part of the cartridge case, locking the gases directly in the barrel.
This revolver was designed in Belgium by the Nagant brothers (Emile and Leon) in the late 1880s – early 1890s, and was adopted by numerous countries, including Sweden and Poland. However, the major user and manufacturer was undoubtably Russia (and later the Soviet Union). At the end of the 19th century, the Russian Empire began a massive rearmament of its army. The "Three-linear rifle of the 1891 model" was chosen as the main sample of small arms. The model of the 4.2-linear (10.67-mm) revolver of the Smith-Wesson III system of the 1880 model, obsolete by that time, served as a standard revolver. The Commission for the development of a small-caliber rifle, headed by Lieutenant General N. G. Chagin, was involved in the search for promising models.
The announced competition and the potential gigantic order aroused great interest among domestic and foreign arms manufacturers. Several modifications of the existing Smith-Wesson revolver, revolvers and automatic pistols were introduced. The main struggle unfolded between the Belgian gunsmiths Henri Pieper with the M1889 Bayard revolver model and Leon Nagant with the M1892.
For a patent for a revolver, Nagant requested 75,000 rubles, which he was ultimately denied and a second competition was appointed with new specified conditions. In addition to the characteristics, they stipulated a bonus: 20,000 rubles for the design of the revolver and 5,000 for the design of the cartridge; in addition, the winner "given his invention to the full ownership of the Russian government, which received the right to manufacture it both in its own country and abroad, without any surcharge to the inventor." Pieper submitted to the competition newly redesigned revolvers with original automatics, which the commission considered "witty, but not practical."
After a number of minor changes, the design was approved in the spring of 1895. On May 13, 1895, by decree of Nicholas II, the "soldier" and "officer" models of the Nagant revolver were adopted by the Russian army, however, according to the military department, the revolvers were officially adopted in June 1896, by order of the Minister of War No. 186. The contract provided for the delivery of 20,000 revolvers of the 1895 model over the next three years.
The first successful combat use of Nagant revolvers dates back to 1900. The Russian Expeditionary Force took part in the suppression of the "Boxer Rebellion" in China. On June 3, 1900, during the capture of the Taku fortification, which blocked the mouth of the Peiho River, the commander of the consolidated company of the 12th Siberian Regiment, Lieutenant Stankevich, who was one of the first to break into the enemy’s location, shot two attacking Chinese soldiers.
By July 20, 1914, according to the report card, the troops had 424,434 Nagant revolvers of all modifications (out of 436,210 laid down in the state), that is, the army was provided with revolvers by 97.3%, but already in the first battles, the loss of weapons was significant. Measures were taken to reconstruct the arms industry, and 474,800 revolvers were produced from 1914 to 1917.
Until the beginning of World War II, the production of revolvers and pistols at the Tula plant was maintained at approximately the same level, from 1932 to 1941 more than 700,000 revolvers were produced. The advantages of pistols were quite obvious to the leadership of the Red Army, however, for a number of reasons, the TT pistol and the 7.62 mm Nagant revolver mod. 1895 were issued in parallel. One of the reasons was the opinion that the gun must necessarily be suitable for firing through the embrasures of the tank. The TT pistol was clearly not suitable for this, and the new models of pistols, which had a barrel not covered by a casing, turned out to be worse than the TT. In 1941, the Tula Arms Plant was evacuated to Udmurtia, to the city of Izhevsk, where the production of revolvers continued, and in 1942 a partial re-evacuation was made from Izhevsk to Tula.
Over 370,000 revolvers were produced between 1942 and 1945. The revolver was in service with the Red Army, the Polish Army, the 1st Czechoslovak Corps, the 1st Romanian Infantry Division named after Tudor Vladimirescu, the 1st Yugoslav Infantry Brigade, the French Normandie-Niemen Fighter Aviation Regiment.
After the end of the war, the 7.62 mm Nagant revolver arr. 1895 was withdrawn from service with the Soviet army and its production was discontinued. However, the revolvers of the Nagant system were in service with the police until the mid-1950s, and in the paramilitary security system and the cash collection system - much longer. Until at least 2000, revolvers were used by geological enterprises. According to the regulations of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, the heads of parties and expeditions, chief and senior geologists armed themselves with revolvers.
The Nagant revolver of the 1895 model, as well as its modifications, were produced by many arms companies around the world. Among them: the Belgian "Lepage", "Bayar", "Frankot", the German "Enel" in Zul, the Russian Imperial Tula Arms Plant, the Spanish "Arizmendi-Goenaga", the Polish one in the city of Radom and others.
In Russia, the 7.62 mm Nagant revolver mod. 1895 were allowed for use by certain categories of employees of the Ministry of Agriculture until at least 2002, they were decommissioned by postal employees in 2003, but as of 2006 they continued to be in service with the paramilitary guards of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise Okhrana of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, departmental security and collectors. In December 1998, the Nagant revolver was officially adopted by the Federal Bailiff Service. In addition, "Nagant" is included in the list of premium firearms.
In Ukraine, the 7.62 mm Nagant revolver mod. 1895, as of August 6, 2008, the Ministry of Defense had 60,000 Nagant revolvers in storage (50,000 serviceable and 10,000 destined for disposal); as of August 15, 2011, 15,000 Nagant revolvers remained in the custody of the Ministry of Defense. However, from this number, from 32 to 40 thousand revolvers at the time of 2014 were in the storage of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and some more in the SBU. As of June 2014, they remained in service with the railway guard.
https://www.google.com/search?q=%D0%98%D0%BC%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F+%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F+%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%85%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjEnbOs77H-AhWaFFkFHWcAC-gQ0pQJegQIARAC&biw=1091&bih=703&dpr=1.23">Improvised Militatry Vehicles https://vk.com/club34269393">Guntrucks, technicals and other improvised combat equipment https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidaxe/2023/03/04/desperate-russian-forces-are-adding-80-year-old-naval-guns-to-70-year-old-armored-tractors/?sh=10cad297112c">Desperate Russian Forces Are Sticking 80-Year-Old Naval Guns On 70-Year-Old Armored Tractors https://notes.citeam.org/tankenstein">Landsman with a Naval Head: Why Has Russia Mounted Anti-Aircraft Guns on MT-LBs https://en.defence-ua.com/weapon_and_tech/unexpected_issues_with_their_new_hybrid_aa_gun_even_russians_are_skeptical_about_the_compatibility_of_ml_lb_and_2m_3-6046.html">?Unexpected Issues With their New Hybrid AA Gun: Even russians Are Skeptical About the Compatibility of ML-LB and 2M-3 https://en.topwar.ru/212469-specoperacija-porozhdaet-monstrov-obzor-nashih-mt-lb-s-korabelnymi-artillerijskimi-ustanovkami.html">MT-LB Mounted 2M-7 Naval Turret https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7NCo9T54U8">MT-LB Mounted 2M-7 Naval Turret https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OaaHRSkfPmM">MT-LB Mounted 2M-7 Naval Turret MT-LB Mounted 2M-3/2M-7 SPAAG The MTLB is already one of the best existing Russian platform. The MTLB is a versatile platform that has been used for various support roles in the past. It has flat surfaces wide enough to mount anything that can be imagined, compared to BMP, BMD or BTR that had smaller surface on the top. The MTLB also had wide Tracked wheels making it a very good option in muddy area. The engine was also very reliable since it was made in old Soviet times.
In early March 2023, photos began circulating online depicting MT-LBs with 2M-3 naval turrets welded to their roofs. The 2M-3 is two 25-millimeter auto-cannons, one atop the other in an enclosed casing. These improvised variants of the MT-LB multi-purpose AFV were nicknamed "Tankenstein" or "Frankentank" in the English-speaking world. There were concerns over the viability of such a weapon even in russia itself. One of the russian military websites has published a rather detailed description of all the problems and issues that the application of this combat vehicle will face in the future. The MT-LB-2M-3 wouldn’t work in an infantry-support role. Its tall turret makes it easy to spot at a distance. Its cannons lack range compared to more modern weapons. Its hull is thinly armored. The modified Russian MTLB armored personnel carriers with 14.5 mm/93 (0.57") 2M-7 naval anti-aircraft guns mounted on them appeared to some observers to be a field modification rather than factory-made. Others believed these vehicles are more likely to have been upgraded not in the field but somewhere deep in the rear and then sent to the frontline on trains. The actual reason for making these vehicles and their intended role is unknown, but they could be used as mobile short-range AA systems to protect against air threats like drones. The 2M3 gun may be used because it is available and has a high mount, making it easy to put the vehicle behind heavy cover in defensive positions. The MTLB's flat back roof area makes it possible to mount weapons without obstructing anything. It is unlikely that these vehicles will be used actively, but they look interesting.
The air-cooled gun entered service with Soviet forces in 1945. It replaced the earlier Degtyarev DHSK 38 12.7 mm gun on a one-for-one basis starting in 1945. The bullet for these guns was originally developed in the 1930s for anti-tank rifles. During World War II, it was found to be inadequate in its intended role. Rather than retooling the factories, the bullet was instead carried over to the KPV heavy machine gun. The MTLB modification is perfect for trenches, much better than ZU 23-2 as it has plates mounted on front and sides. The height is perfect for hull down firing, from the way the Russians have built their trenches. The larger caliber allows it to threaten light vehicles and the slower rate of fire [ROF] may make it more effective. There have been videos of VDV using ZU 23 on BTR-D and it moves the whole vehicle from the high ROF and large caliber.
It possible that those modified vehicles are for "less important" area so they can allow better AA system to defend the most important checkpoints / cities etc Since they can serve as double defence system, anti aircraft / drones and anti infantry as a last resort.
Most modern air defence systems, even if effective against small UAVs, are expensive. Very easy to get into the "weather baloon" territory in terms of wasteful. So flak is making a comeback. Also they are rolling out old stock in order to use up the ammo which is an economically sound choice. The high turret may help the infantry in a long way hide from the ATGM, just putting out the turret from cover still be vulnerable to the Javelin but can be usefull against for the direct ATGM. The 25mm autocannon can penetrate walls easily, and always will be better to have a weapon shooting to the enemy than not having a weapon shooting at the enemy. Troops can never have too much firepower (especially on the nearly 1000km front line)
This modification will use up the 25mm ammo (which is available in vast quantities and not otherwise usable). It doesn't even need to be precise - it can just unload on a tree line with trenches from maximum range. It will cut the tree cover down and spray plenty of shrapnel (with some luck right over the trenches). This fire is better than trying to assault the position without using something first (it can easily supplement existing 23/30mm light guns). so this modification is a good way to increase firepower on the absolute cheap.
Obviously everyone wants to have only the latest and greatest, but that's just not the reality of any war (an quick/simple example that comes to mind are unarmored humvvees used in the 2nd Iraq war). Why throw away what is available when it can be used to help win the war.
Pistolet-Pulemyot Shpagina; "Shpagin machine pistol"
PTRD-41 / PTRS-41 anti-tank rifle
The long anti-tank rifle was one of the symbols of the Red Army, and then the Soviet army during the Great Patriotic War. One could even say that the Red Army had a weakness for this weapon. Anti-tank guns are generally a German invention, and were used in commercial quantities by both Germany and England. But only in the initial period of the war, until they were replaced by rocket-propelled grenade launchers. The USSR, in the pre-war period, was still hesitating whether it was worth contacting large-caliber rifles at all, having decided to contact, remained faithful to this choice to the end. And there must be some reason for such persistence.
In the initial period of the Great Patriotic War, the troops of the Red Army experienced an acute shortage of anti-tank weapons. This was due both to their significant loss in battles and to the pre-war reassessment of German tanks, when a number of senior army leaders believed that guns with a caliber of more than 76 mm would be needed to defeat them and the production of anti-tank rifles and light anti-tank artillery was curtailed. Stalin's analysts who, before the war with Germany, mistakenly believed that the developing Wehrmacht was armed with only thick-armored tanks, and stated that large-caliber rifles, but even the legendary forty-five would be powerless and useless.
It was only during the course of hostilities that it became clear that the main group of German tanks did not have particularly thick armor and could be destroyed even by conventional armor-piercing bullets with a core of a 12.7-mm DShK machine gun . Accordingly, in the middle of the summer of 1941, many weapons designers were instructed to urgently develop an infantry anti-tank rifle - PTR in the shortest possible time. With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, it was necessary to urgently saturate the troops with sufficiently mobile and long-range anti-tank weapons. The choice fell on anti-tank rifles of 14.5 mm caliber, which were developed in the shortest possible time by the famous Soviet designers Vasily Alekseevich Degtyarev and Sergey Gavrilovich Simonov.
Degtyarev developed a single-shot rifle (PTRD ProtivoTankovoye Ruzhyo Degtyaryova 1941 : "Degtyaryov Single Shot Anti-Tank Weapon System Model of 1941"), and Simonov developed a self-loading one with a five-round magazine (PTRS Protivotankovoye samozaryadnoye ruzhyo obraztsa 1941 goda sistemy Simonova, lit. 'Anti-tank-self-loading gun pattern 1941, Simonov system'). Each had its own merits: the PTRD was lighter and simpler, and the PTRS had a higher rate of fire. Both guns were put into service in 1941 and put into production at the end of the same year. The mass production of PTRD was launched in 1941, and PTRS - in 1942. The guns were produced by several factories, among them was Izhevsk Plant No. 74 (Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant), which in July 1942 transferred their production, along with a TT pistol and a revolver Nagan, plant number 622 (Izhevsk Mechanical Plant).
Anti-tank single-shot rifle arr. 1941 of the Degtyarev system (PTRD) - Soviet anti-tank rifle of the Degtyarev system , put into service on August 29, 1941. It was intended to fight medium and light tanks and armored vehicles at distances up to 500 m. Also, the gun could fire at pillboxes, bunkers and firing points covered with armor at distances up to 800 m and at aircraft at distances up to 500 m. The opening of the shutter and the further ejection of the cartridge case from the rifle occur automatically, and the operation of inserting the cartridge and closing the shutter by the soldier is carried out manually.
The PTRD barrel has a channel with eight rifling, winding from left to top to right, a muzzle brake to reduce recoil, in the middle are a handle for carrying weapons and a groove for attaching a bipod. In the front of the barrel there is a front sight base (on which the front sight is planted), and in the back there is a sight bracket. On the left side of the receiver there is a slide delay, and on the bottom - a trigger mechanism. Outside, it has: an upper window (for inserting a cartridge), a lower window (for ejecting a spent cartridge case), a platform with a ledge (for connecting with a butt), a cutout (for moving the bolt handle when locking and unlocking the bore). Inside the receiver has: a channel for placing the shutter, two longitudinal grooves and two support ledges.
The PTRD trigger mechanism consists of a trigger, trigger, sear and two springs (for sear and trigger). The sight consists of a bracket, a rear sight with a slot and a spring. In early examples, the bracket has a hole through which the rear sight moves up and down. In the lower position, the rear sight corresponds to firing distances up to 400 m, and in the upper position - from 400 m to 1000 m. m. The front sight is pushed into the groove of the front sight base and can move left and right when bringing the ATGM to normal combat.
The PTRD shutter consists of a shutter core and a percussion mechanism. The shutter frame has: a handle, a cup with a whisk (to place the cartridge head), a channel (for the passage of the firing pin), a groove (for placing the ejector), a socket (for the reflector and its spring), two lugs (for locking the barrel), beveled a cutout (retracting the drummer when the bolt is opened), an annular groove (which includes an annular protrusion of the coupling for engaging the percussion mechanism with the bolt frame) and two holes (removing powder gases in case of their breakthrough into the bolt). The impact mechanism consists of a drummer (having a ledge with a cocking), a coupling (connecting the impact mechanism to the bolt), a mainspring (sending the drummer to the front position), a restrictive tube (limiting the withdrawal of the drummer back),
The PTRD stock is attached to the receiver and consists of a shoulder rest (cushion) with an outer tube and a trigger box with an inner tube. The shock absorber spring is located in the outer tube, and on the left there is an emphasis for the gunner's cheek. On the right there is a tide with a curved edge to open the shutter after the shot. A wooden stop is attached to the pillow and the outer tube for holding with the left hand during firing. In the trigger box with an inner tube is the trigger mechanism. A pistol grip is attached to the inner tube for ease of shooting. The trigger box has a platform for connecting the butt to the receiver, a hole for a pin (securing the trigger box with the receiver) and a trigger guard (protecting against accidental pressing of the trigger).
Belonging to the PTRD: a composite ramrod, a key, a screwdriver, a double-necked oiler and a brush. Also, for each gun there are two canvas cartridge bags (for 20 rounds each), two canvas covers (for the breech and muzzle of the gun) and a form (with the results of the battle check, the number of shots, delays and ways to eliminate them).
Anti-tank self-loading rifle mod. 1941 of the Simonov system (PTRS, Index GRAU - 56-V-562) - Soviet self-loading anti-tank rifle, put into service on August 29, 1941. It was intended to fight medium and light tanks and armored vehicles at distances up to 500 m. Also, the gun could fire at pillboxes / bunkers and firing points covered with armor at distances up to 800 m and at aircraft at distances up to 500 m.
The PTRS anti-tank rifle was developed in parallel with the PTRD and was adopted by the Red Army at the same time. When creating a gun, S. G. Simonov made a simple and unexpected decision: to “enlarge” a self-loading rifle that had already justified itself and tested in battles to such a size that 14.5 mm caliber cartridges could be used . In the course of work, refinements were made, the design changed, the technology was improved, but the main idea was implemented, the new anti-tank rifle was self-loading with a combat rate of up to 15 rounds per minute.
Automation PTRS works on the principle of removing part of the powder gases from the barrel. There is a gas regulator with three positions for dosing the gases discharged to the piston, depending on the operating conditions. Locking is carried out by tilting the shutter frame in a vertical plane. The trigger mechanism provides fire only with single shots. When the cartridges are used up, the shutter stops in the open position. The barrel has eight right rifling and is equipped with a muzzle brake. A shock absorber (cushion) is installed on the butt plate of the butt. The store is integral, with a hinged bottom cover and a lever feeder. Loading was carried out from below, with a metal pack with five cartridges, arranged in a checkerboard pattern. The gun was completed with six packs.
The anti-tank rifle PTRD was a powerful weapon - at a distance of up to 300 m, its bullet pierced armor 30–40 mm thick. The incendiary effect of bullets was also high. Thanks to this, it was successfully used throughout the Second World War.
At the beginning of July 1941, I. V. Stalin set the task for the People's Commissariat for Armaments of the USSR to create an effective, simple and cheap anti-tank rifle for a fully developed 14.5-mm cartridge within a month . The gunsmiths N. V. Rukavishnikov, V. A. Degtyarev and S. G. Simonov were involved in the work on the creation of anti-tank guns .
The anti-tank guns of Simonov and Degtyarev were good. They were objectively the best in this class of weapons, although the merit of Degtyarev and Simonov in this accomplishment is secondary. Success was ensured by the 14.5x114 mm cartridge left over from Rukavishnikov's pre-war anti-tank rifle, which did not go into production. This powerful cartridge, which provided a 64 gram bullet with an initial speed of 1020 meters per second, remains relevant to this day and even played a global role in the history of the development of armored vehicles. Thanks to him, foreign infantry fighting vehicles turned out to be twice as heavy as Soviet ones. For their armor implied protection against 14.5 mm bullets, while for Soviet combat vehicles protection against .50 Browning bullets was considered sufficient.
In fact, anti-tank rifles could only be useful against light and small tanks, and became completely ineffective if the enemy had vehicles with anti-cannon armor. It was on the basis of these considerations that before the war the Soviet leadership did not want to accept anti-tank rifles for service.
But then it turned out that PTR, at least, is better than nothing. Such an effect as damage to German vehicles and losses in the ranks of the crews should not be neglected either. A 14.5-mm machine gun would have been even better, however - and this was a significant omission - this appeared only after the war. If its creation had been taken care of earlier, this would have solved, among other things, the painful problem of an acute shortage (and, as of 41 years old, rather, absence) of small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery. For later, foreign observers noted that in terms of the effect of using a 14.5 mm machine gun against ground and air targets, it is comparable to a 25 mm cannon.
On July 16, 1941, a 14.5-mm cartridge with an armor-piercing incendiary bullet with a hardened steel core was adopted by the Red Army under the designation " 14.5-mm cartridge B-32 ". The development of the PTRD took place in KB-2. V. A. Degtyarev and S. G. Simonov completed the working projects at the same time. For both designers, the development and manufacture of prototypes took 22 days each. The first pre-production PTRD was manufactured and sent for testing in mid-August 1941.
By a GKO decree of August 29, 1941, V. A. Degtyarev’s anti-tank rifle was adopted by the Red Army. The gun was very technologically advanced in production, almost completely could be made on lathes, so the mass production of PTRD was mastered earlier than the mass production of PTRS. The production of PTRD was started at the Kovrov Arms Plant, at the end of November 1941, the production of PTRD and PTRS was also mastered by the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant (to which drawings, technical documentation and part of the blank parts were delivered), but until the beginning of 1942, the total production of anti-tank rifles in Izhevsk did not exceed 20 pcs. per day.
Serial production of the first guns began on September 22, 1941, in October the first pilot batch of 50 guns was assembled, in total 17,688 were produced in 1941, and 184,800 ATGMs in 1942. Since October 1943, they began to assemble the gun in Zlatoust at plant No. 385. The production of the gun was discontinued in December 1944, a total of 281,111 units were produced.
In 1943, when the use of PTR for its intended purpose - against tanks - was reduced to a minimum, the USSR already had not only huge stocks of guns, but also a well-thought-out staff structure, well-developed tactics and experienced personnel. It was more profitable to adapt this entire overclocked combat vehicle for solving, perhaps not core, but necessary tasks, rather than dismantle it. Even closer to 1945, when German armored vehicles became rare on the battlefields, there was work for the PTR.
The production of PTRS was discontinued in 1945, a total of 190,615 units were produced. guns of this type. The production of a large number of guns (469,700 anti-tank rifles of both systems) made it possible to form an anti-tank rifle platoon (18 rifles) as part of each rifle battalion, an anti-tank rifle company (54 rifles) as part of a rifle regiment and an anti-tank battalion, attach anti-tank rifle units to artillery regiments, tank, motorized rifle and mechanized brigades.
After the end of the Great Patriotic War, the guns were removed from service with the Soviet Army, but remained in storage. In the mid-1950s - 1960s, a number of stored PTRDs were transferred free of charge from the warehouses of the mobilization reserve of the USSR Ministry of Defense to the hunting farms of the Far North, where they were used for hunting whales.
Despite an age of over 70 years, by 2024 PTRS-41 and PTRD-41 anti tank rifles were often seen at the pictures from the Ukraine conflict. They were used by pro russian separatists and ukrainian volunteer battalions as anti-material rifles. The biggest stock of infantry arms located in conflict area were in the Soledar salt mines. There was a period when area was under control of rebels, but stocks were defended by groups of Ukranian special forces.
|Type||Anti-tank rifle||Anti-tank rifle|
|Years of operation||since 1941||1941–Present|
|Wars and conflicts||
||Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov|
|Manufacturer||Plant named after Degtyarev|
|Years of production||1941-1944||1941–1945|
|Weight, kg||17.3 (unloaded)|
|20.93 kg (46.1 lb)|
|Cartridge Muzzle velocity, km/h||1012 m/s||1,013 m/s (3,320 ft/s)|
|Length, mm||2000||2,108 mm (6 ft 11.0 in)|
|Barrel length , mm||1350 (chambered)||1,219 mm (48.0 in)|
|Caliber , mm||14.5|
|Action||manual feed single shot||Gas-operated; short stroke gas piston, vertically tilting bolt|
|Feed system||5-round (in clip) integral magazine|
|Rate of fire, shots / min||8-10 (combat rate of fire)|
|Muzzle velocity , m/s||1020|
|Sighting range , m||1000|
|Effective firing range||800 m (870 yd) against armored vehicles|
|Maximum firing range||800 (effective)||1,500 m (1,600 yd) against armored vehicles|
DP-28 machine gun
Vasily Degtyaryov began developing the DP-27 light machine gun in the early 1920s. Following trials and some modifications, the Soviet army adopted Degtyaryov’s gun in 1928 as the DP-28. The DP-28 machine gun can be safely considered one of the symbols of the Great Patriotic War and victory. Fighters with these light machine guns quite often found themselves in the lenses of cameras of war correspondents. For all the time, more than 795 thousand of these "machines" were produced. The degree of saturation of the Red Army with DP-28 machine guns was quite high, but the fighters of the Soviet Union themselves did not like this weapon too much. It fed from a narrow, 47-round pan magazine, which gave it its nickname — “record player.”
The designers of different countries recognized in the years of the First World War that the infantry needed light portable machine guns. It was then, for example, that the infamous French Shosha machine gun was created, about the capabilities and quality of which it is difficult to say something good. Needless to say, the saying “the first pancake is lumpy” did not appear out of the blue. The Soviet machine gun DP-28 is far from being as miserable in its qualities as the “Frenchman” during the imperialist war. Nevertheless, the DP-28 had very specific and rather striking flaws, for which it was not loved too much.
It is important to understand that by the time the Great Patriotic War began, the DP-28 was not yet obsolete, but still not new. Technological progress, especially in the field of armaments in the interwar period, marched by leaps and bounds. It is enough to look at least at how tanks and military aircraft looked in 1918 and 1939 to “feel the difference”. The situation for the Soviet light machine gun was also complicated by the fact that, in fact, it was one of the first samples of small arms developed in the Soviet Union. The year of birth of the DP-28 is considered to be 1928.
Thanks to the “Mosin” cartridge 7.62x54 mm R, the DP-28 machine gun had a good effective firing range of 750-800 meters, high power, accuracy, accuracy and flatness of fire. At least by the standards of the first half of the 20th century. Actually, this is where the advantages of the weapon ended. Even for its time, the light machine gun was heavy - 11.8 kg with a loaded disc. At the same time, the DP disk did not hold 100, not 80, or even 60 rounds of ammunition, but only 47! The disk loaded with ammunition alone weighed 2.7 kg. Without cartridges, the same disk weighed 1.6 kg.
It is precisely because of the insufficient capacity, the complexity of the equipment and the general operational unreliability of the ammunition drums that in the second half of the 20th century the designers will prefer ordinary magazines, boxes, and bags, but only in the most extreme case, drums. In addition, due to the fact that the DP-28 was produced at the dawn of the formation of the domestic industry, the build quality of machine guns was very poor. The very design of the weapon was quite simple and reliable, there was almost nothing to break! But there was a "pitfall": seemingly identical disks did not fit different DP-28s. A similar problem at the beginning of the war was with the drums for the PPSh-41, when it was possible to fasten only its “native” ammunition element to the submachine gun. The main drawback is the unfortunate location of the return spring, which led to the failure of the machine gun when overheated. The disadvantage was eliminated only at the DPM.
On August 29, 1944, the People's Commissar of Armaments of the USSR D.F. Ustinov and the head of the Main Artillery Directorate N.D. Yakovlev submitted a modernized light machine gun to the State Defense Committee for approval. The State Defense Committee approved the proposed changes to the light machine gun, giving it the name DPM (Degtyarev Infantry Modernized). At the end of the war, the DP machine gun and its modernized version of the DPM were removed from service with the Soviet Army and were widely supplied to countries friendly to the USSR . It was in service with the member states of the ATS until the 1960s. Used in Korea , Vietnam and other countries.
|Type||light machine gun|
|Years of operation||1928 - present|
|In service||Red Army|
|Wars and conflicts||Spanish Civil War , Battles at Khalkhin Gol , Soviet-Finnish War (1939-1940) , Great Patriotic War , Korean War , Vietnam War , Chinese Civil War , Indochina Wars , Libyan Civil War , Syrian Civil War , Civil War war in Yugoslavia , hot spots in the post-Soviet space.|
|Constructor||Degtyarev, Vasily Alekseevich|
|Weight, kg||11.8 (with loaded 47-round disc) 1.6 (empty magazine) 2.7 (loaded magazine)|
|Barrel length , mm||604.5 (without flame arrester)|
|Caliber , mm||7.62|
|Work principles||removal of powder gases , locking with sliding lugs|
|Rate of fire , shots / min||500-600 (combat)|
|Muzzle velocity , m/s||840 (light bullet cartridge)|
|Sighting range , m||800|
|Maximum range, m||up to 2500|
|Type of ammunition||47- round flat disc magazine|
|corrected artillery ammunition|
|Name||Caliber, mm||Maximum firing range, km||Warhead type||Mass of explosive, kg||Projectile length, mm||Projectile weight, kg|
|Medium Caliber||Major Caliber|
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